Note: All citations should
be double-spaced. They are single spaced on
this handout to save space. The guide uses underlining
instead of italics for titles in order to remain
consistant with the examples given in the MLA
Handbook, 5th ed. However, MLA, 5th ed, does note
(p. 65) that you may use italics rather than underlining
when typing titles but suggests that you check
with your instructor to determine their preference.
Book by a Single Author/Editor
Kasson, John F. Civilizing the Machine: Technology
and Republican Values in America
- 1776-1900. New York: Penguin, 1976.
Book by Multiple Authors/Editors
Ehrenreich, Barbara, and John Ehrenreich,
eds. The American Health Empire: Power,
- and Politics. New York: Vintage, 1971.
Grossberg, Lawrence, Cary Nelson, and Paula
A. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies.
- Routeledge, 1992.
Hall, Stuart, et al. Policing the Crisis.
Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1979
If, instead of authors, the names of editors,
translators or compilers appear on the title
pages, then their name(s) should be listed.
A comma should come after the name(s) and
the proper abbreviation (eds., trans., or
comps.) should follow the comma. If MORE THAN
three persons authored/edited the book, only
the first name (reversed) should appear, followed
by a comma and "et al."
Alan Guttmacher Institute. State Legislative
Record: 1988 Fertility- Related Bills and
Laws as of
- December 31. Washington, D.C.: Alan
Guttmacher Institute, 1988.
A corporate author can be a commission, association,
committee, etc. If the corporate author and
the publisher are the same, the corporate
author's name should still appear in the author
position of a bibliographic entry as well
as in the publisher position.
Edited Collections - no author given
Fee, Elizabeth, and Daniel M. Fox, eds. AIDS:
The Burdens of History.
- Berkeley: University of California Press,
If you refer to an article within an edited
collection (book chapter, short stories, introduction,
etc.) then the bibliographic entry should
begin with the author of the referenced text.
The name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s),
translator(s) in first name/last name order
should follow the title of the publication
preceded by "Ed." "Trans." "Comp". Note:
Page numbers of the article are included at
the end of the citation.
Zola, Irving Kenneth. "Medicine as an Institution
of Social Control." The American Health
- Power, Profits, and Politics. Eds.
Barbara Ehrenreich and John Ehrenreich. New
- York: Vintage, 1971. 80-100.
Constantine, Macaroni. Pasta Luega.
Trans. George Elbow. Ed. Milo Linguini.
- New York: Ittegaps, 1999.
If you mainly reference the specific comments
and work of the translator, then the translator's
name (reversed) should appear first, followed
by a comma, "trans.", and a period. The author's
name (in normal order), preceded by "By",
should appear after the text's title.
Nice, Richard, trans. Outline of a Theory
of Practice. By Pierre Bourdieu. Ed. Billy
- Horton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Book in a Series
Shilstone, Frederick W. Approaches to Teaching
Byron's Poetry. Approaches
- to Teaching World Literature 36. New York:
Make reference to specific volumes and page
numbers within the text of your paper. When
using only one volume in a multivolume work,
insert the number of the volume you are using
between the title and the publication information
for that volume.
Lucas, Robert E., Jr. and Thomas J. Sargent,
eds. Rational Expectations and Econometric
- Practice. Vol. 1. Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota Press, 1981.
You may also add the total number of volumes
at the end of the entry. If the volume has
a different title from the entire work, your
citation will appear as follows:
Arendt, Hannah. Imperialism. London:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1968.
- Vol. 2 of The Origins of Totalitarianism.
Encyclopedia Articles (article unsigned
"Mealworm." Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Garvey, Lawrence. "El Paso, Illinois." Encyclopedia
Americana. 1982 ed.
The typical citation for a government document
begins with the author. If no author is given,
begin by identifying the government (United
States, Mississippi, Mexico, etc.) and the
agency that issued the document. Include the
title of the publication, place, publisher
New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks
in the Twenty-First Century. The Adirondack
- Park in the Twenty-First Century.
Albany: State of New York, 1990.
For congressional documents, include number
and session of Congress and the type and number
of the publication before the publishing information.
United States. Congressional Joint Committee
on the Investigation of the Pearl
- Harbor Attack. Hearings 79th Cong.,
1st and 2nd sess. 32 vols. Washington: GPO,
For Congressional Records, include
only the date and page numbers.
Cong. Record. 8 January 1988: 2890-2899.
Conference proceedings are cited the same
way as a book with the addition of all pertinent
Gavin, McCloud, ed. Restoring Sunken Vessels.
Proc. of the Maritime and Shipping Industry's
- Annual Conference on Ship Building, May 1990,
U of Maryland. Annapolis: Annapolis
- Press, 1991.
Presentations in proceedings are treated
like works in a collection.
Mann, Humphrey. "Hemingway Reassessed." The
Great American Writers: Proceedings of the
- Eleventh Annual Research Symposium on Literature,
Boston, 21-23 April 1999.
- Ed. Tom Hanks. Boston: University of Mass,
ERIC Document - Materials Accessed
Through a Computer Service
Include the following information: Author
name (if given); publication information;
title of the database (underlined); publication
medium (Online); name of the computer service
(EbscoHost, Silverplatter, etc.); date of
Guidelines for Family Television Viewing.
Urbana: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and
- Childhood Education, 1990. ERIC. Online.
EbscoHost. 22 Nov. 1998.
Footnotes or Endnotes in a Works Cited
Do not list the indirect source (the text
listed in the endnote or footnote) in your
bibliography. Only mention the actual source
in which you found the information.
Harris, James. Scientists of Our Century.
New York: Bantam, 1992.
Second Work by Same Author
If an author or authors have their names on
more than one text, check to see if the authorship
of both texts is identical. If, and only if,
the authors are in fact identical, then the
listing for the second entry should be replaced
with three hyphens and a period.
Hall, Stuart. "Cold, Comfort, Farm." New
Socialist Nov. 1985: 10-12.
---. "Thatcherism: A New Stage?" Marxism
Today Feb. 1980: 22-27.
Hall, Stuart. et al. Policing the Crisis.
Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1979
No Author Identified
If no author can be identified, then a text
is alphabetized by the first word of its title,
excluding definite or indefinite articles
(note that "The Shepherd's Consort" precedes
Tesh, Sylvia Noble).
"The Shepherd's Consort." The Norton Anthology
of English Literature. Ed.
- M.H. Abrams. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W.
Norton and Co., 1979. 2 vols.
Tesh, Sylvia Noble. Hidden Arguments.
New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers
- University Press, 1988.
Journal with Continuous Pagination (page
numbers continue from one issue to the next)
Note that with this type of journal, issue
numbers are not necessary and the year is
sufficient for the date.
Gardner, Eric. "'This Attempt of Their Sister':
Harriet Wilson's Our Nig from Printer to Readers."
- New England Quarterly 66 (1993): 226-46.
Journal with Non-Continuous Pagination
(each issue has separate page numbering)
Note here that the volume number (26) is followed
by a period and then by the issue number (3);
note also that the date is more specific than
simply the year.
Magistrale, Tony. "Wild Child: Jim Morrison's
Poetic Journeys." Journal of Popular Culture
- (Winter 1992): 133-44.
Article in a Weekly Periodical
Note that volume numbers are not listed for
magazines. Periodical titles should be underlined.
Whitaker, Mark. "Getting Tough at Last."
Newsweek 10 May 1993: 22.
Nelson, Cary. Personal interview. 15 Sept.
Villalobos, Joaquin. Interview. Mother
Jones July 1992: 8-10.
Rico, Jose. Interview. Afternoon Edition.
WILL Public Radio.
- Urbana, IL. 23 Sept. 1992.
Films and Videotapes
Begin with the title, which should be underlined,
followed by the director's name. Then, include
any additional information that you find relevant,
such as the names of lead actors. End with
the distributor and year, separated by a comma.
Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree.
Dir. Al Smith. With Winnie the
- Pooh and Piglet. Walt Disney Home Video, 1985.
With commercial recordings, begin with the
name of the contributor being cited. Then
cite the title, the artist(s), the manufacturer,
the catalog number, and the year of release.
When using a medium other than a record, state
the medium (eg. CD), immediately after the
title. Underline the title of the record but
as in musical compositions, do not underline
titles identified by form, number, and key
only. If necessary, state at the end of the
entry, any relevant characteristics of the
recording and whether the recording is no
longer available. Cite spoken, non-musical
recordings the same way. When citing jacket
notes or any text accompanying a recording,
state (in the following order), the author's
name,the title of the material and a description
of the ma terial (e.g. jacket notes) followed
by the normal bibliography information mentioned
Lloyd Webber, Andrew. Phantom of the Opera.
With Michael Crawford.
- Cond. Don Just. Geffen, 2GGS 2030, 1984.
Writer of the program (if known), an underlined
title of the program, the version of the program,
a descriptive label, the distributor and the
year of publication. At the end of the entry,
add relevant information such as the operating
system the program needs, number of kilobytes
and form of the program. The medium can be,
but is not limited to the following: online,
CD-ROM, floppy disk, magnetic tapes. Pagination
in electronic references is unavailable in
many cases, thus left out of the citation.
Chen, Roger. Visdata. Vers. 1.1. Computer
software. Viscal, 1986.
- IBM PC-DOS 2.0, 256KB, disk.
Computer or Internet Resources
Almost all of the following is taken directly
from the MLA Website's "MLA Style - FAQ" found
Entries in a works-cited list for computer
or Internet resources contain as many items
from the list below as are relevant and available.
1. Name of the author, editor, compiler,
or translator of the source (if available
and relevant), reversed for alphabetizing
and followed by an abbreviation, such as ed.,
2. Title of a poem, short story, article,
or similar short work within a scholarly project,
database, or periodical (in quotation marks);
or title of a posting to a discussion list
or forum (taken from the subject line and
put in quotation marks), followed by the description
3. Title of a book (underlined)
4. Name of the editor, compiler, or translator
of the text (if relevant and if not cited
earlier), preceded by the appropriate abbreviation,
such as Ed.
5. Publication information for any print version
of the source
6. Title of the scholarly project, database,
periodical, or professional or personal site
(underlined); or, for a professional or personal
site with no title, a description such as
7. Name of the editor of the scholarly project
or database (if available)
8. Version number of the source (if not part
of the title) or, for a journal, the volume
number, issue number, or other identifying
9. Date of electronic publication, of the
latest update, or of posting
10. For a work from a subscription service,
the name of the service and--if a library
is the subscriber--the name and city (and
state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library
11. For a posting to a discussion list or
forum, the name of the list or forum
12. The number range or total number of pages,
paragraphs, or other sections, if they are
13. Name of any institution or organization
sponsoring or associated with the Web site
14. Date when the researcher accessed the
15. Electronic address, or URL, of the source
(in angle brackets); or, for a subscription
service, the URL of the service's main page
(if known) or the keyword assigned by the
Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed.
Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. 26 Apr.
Portuguese Language Page. U of Chicago.
1 May 1997
Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 1 May 1997 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/~ian/index.html>.
Nesbit, E[dith]. Ballads and Lyrics of
Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian
- Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997.
Indiana U. 26 Apr. 1997
- <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/ nesbit/ballsoc.html>.
Nesbit, E[dith]. "Marching Song." Ballads
and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908.
- Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed.
Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. 26 Apr.
Article in a Reference Database
"Fresco." Britannica Online. Vers.
97.1.1. Mar. 1997. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
29 Mar. 1997
- <http:// www.eb.com:180>.
Article in a Journal
Flannagan, Roy. "Reflections on Milton and
Ariosto." Early Modern Literary Studies
- 16 pars. 22 Feb. 1997 <http://unixg.ubc.ca:7001/0/e-sources/emls/02-3/flanmilt.html>.
Article in a Magazine
Landsburg, Steven E. "Who Shall Inherit the
Earth?" Slate 1 May 1997. 2 May 1997
- <http:// www.slate.com/Economics/97-05-01/Economics.asp>.
Article from a Subscription Service
(i.e. EbscoHost, Lexis-Nexis, etc.) Note:
If a library is the subscriber, include the
library name, city and state.
Wildstrom, Stephen H. "A Big Boost for Net
Privacy." Business Week Apr. 5, 1999:
- LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe. USM Cook Lib.,
Hattiesburg, MS. 5 August 1999.
"Table Tennis." Compton's Encyclopedia
Online. Vers. 2.0. 1997. America Online.
4 July 1998.
- Keyword: Compton's.
Fullilove v. Klutznick. 448 U.S. 448.448-554.
No. 78-1007. US Supreme Court. 1980. Online.
- LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe. Hattiesburg,
MS. 5 August 1999.
Posting to a Discussion List
Merrian, Joanne. "Spinoff: Monsterpiece Theatre."
Online posting. 30 Apr. 1994.
- Shaksper: The Global Electronic Shakespeare
Conference. 27 Aug. 1997